World Reserve Currencies: What Happened During Previous Periods of Transition?


The decline of the US dollar hegemony is ever so clear today and this article aims to provide the reader with what exactly happened during past periods of reserve currency transitions. Historically, when a reserve currency transitioned over to a new one, it marked a pivotal change for the world. The economic paradigm shifted and the rules of the game changed. This time will be no different when the US dollar loses its status as the reserve currency!

The transition process of the world reserve currency brings much uncertainty

Throughout history, a transition of the reserve currencies has always brought about turmoil and uncertainty in financial markets. One country’s decline, and the subsequent rise of another, marks a radical transformation for the world, especially as market demand shifts. The country that dominates global commerce during any given period is usually marked with the status of having the reserve currency. Spain and Portugal dominated the 15th and 16th centuries, the Netherlands the 17th century, France and Britain the 18th and 19th centuries, and the US dominated the 20th century. 

Throughout the Age of Exploration, Portugal created a dominant global empire. Traditional trade routes to Asia were no longer feasible due to the growth of the Ottoman Empire and their 1453 capture of Constantinople, and so the need for alternative trade routes emerged. Thanks to advances in navigational technology as well as other auspicious circumstances, the Portuguese, and soon the Spanish, were to reach Africa, Asia, and the New World. Consequently, the Portuguese and later the Spanish currencies became the primary currencies used in global trade at that time. The Portuguese, throughout their travels and discoveries, established military outposts along the coasts of Africa, India, Malaysia, Japan, and China (Macau), etc.; when they became over-extended, the empire eventually declined due to attacks and competition from other countries (mainly the Dutch, British and French). Portugal and Spain then merged together to create the Iberian union; however, it collapsed through wars and revolutions by the mid-17th century.

It was then the turn of the Dutch, whose rise to global power was largely aided by the creation of the first multinational corporation in the world, the Dutch East India Company (VOC). The Dutch defeated Portugal and Spain in global economic importance and positioned themselves to profit from European demand for spices. By 1669, the VOC was the richest private company that the world had ever seen, with over 150 merchant ships, 40 warships, 50,000 employees, a private army of 10,000 soldiers, and a dividend payment of 40% on the original investment to shareholders. Later, with the event of the Anglo-Dutch War, the spice trade was temporarily ceased and this caused a spike in prices for spices. At that point, other countries were enticed to start their own spice trading companies, namely the French and English (French East India Company and English East India Company). The saturation of the spice market and the costly Anglo-Dutch wars destroyed the Dutch East India Company and their currency (the “Guilder”) as a global currency.


France achieved European political dominance under Louis XIV, and although the legacy of the ‘Roi Soleil’ was great. it is not to be forgotten that he left his heirs in a whirlwind of social strife and extreme debt caused principally by war and an unfair tax base. While the French debt was being allowed to reach staggering amounts, the British, meanwhile, were engaging in an Industrial Revolution that would set Britain apart, creating, in effect, an empire “where the sun never set.” The 1789 French Revolution was essentially a response to a financial crisis that had become debilitating. After a decade of internecine bloodshed and civil war, the French found a new leader under the young general, Napoleon Bonaparte. The Napoleonic Wars of 1803-1815 raged for over a decade, extending French influence over much of Europe (and inspiring a revolution in Haiti). At the height of Napoleon in 1812, the French Empire maintained an extensive military presence in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Poland. It was this Napoleonic empire, however short-lived. that was to rock Europe so profoundly that upon Napoleon’s defeat, the powers of Europe came together to establish a peace at the 1815 Congress of Vienna that would re-balance power for the rest of the 19th century.

Following the defeat of Napoleonic France in 1815, England enjoyed almost a century of global dominance in trade.

By 1922 the British Empire held power over circa 458 million people (one-fifth of the world’s population) and about a quarter of the total land area at the time. By the Second World War, the British Empire was virtually bankrupt. The US provided funding to Britain at the time as they were now the largest creditor nation in the world. However, it was only after the Bretton Woods Conference 1945 that the US dollar officially became the world’s reserve currency.

Each country that rose to ultimate global dominance of commerce declined due to an over-saturation point. Fast-forward to today, and there is a remarkably similar situation for the US. The US has 900 military bases in 130 countries and spent over $640 billion in 2013 on military alone. This figure dwarfs all other military spending combined BY ALL OTHER COUNTRIES. The US is no longer the largest creditor nation in the world, but rather the largest debtor nation in the history of the world. China is now the largest creditor nation. Will the 21th century belong to China and the Yuan?

Today the US dominates the land, sea and air with their overbearing military reach in 130 countries. However, the landscape for war is once again changing. Alternative versions of the traditional warfare are emerging, such as economic/cyber war. By enforcing trade sanctions on a country and manipulating market prices, powerful countries can exert force without even having to step into another country. In other words, the stock market and future’s market have become a tool for the elite.  They can drop the price of oil to bankrupt a particular country or sell their national debt on the market to wipe out their currency and create hyper inflation. These measures are much quicker/efficient for government and the elite to employ than the traditional methods of war we have seen in the last century. Although the US dominates the traditional sense of war, they do not have the same type of defense mechanisms in the financial market. As I pointed out in a previous, How the US Dollar Can Collapse, there are virtually an unlimited number of ways the US can be attacked today.

The Typical Duration of a World Reserve Currency

The reserve currency transition is a cycle that has typically lasted in history somewhere between 80 to 110 years. Officially, the US dollar has been the reserve currency for 68 years. However, the US dollar was used in trade much before, since the 1920’s in fact. That would put the US dollar closer to 90+ years as the reserve currency. These cycles of about 100 years (one century) is very common in history: the ancients called it a saeculum which represented four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter). As with all cycles, there was a period of growth, saturation, peak, and decline which represented these seasons. An excellent book on economic cycles, with a focus on the current cycle in which we find ourselves, is The Fourth Turning by William Strauss and Neil Howe. It is a must-read. Here is a quote from Strauss’s book:

“An appreciation for history is never more important than at times when a secular winter is forecast. In the fourth turning, we can expect to encounter personal and public choices akin to the hardest ever faced by an ancestral generation. We would do well to learn from their experiences, viewed through the prism of cyclical time. This will not come easily. It will require us to lend a new seasonal interpretation to our revered American Dream. And it will require us to admit that our faith in linear progress has often amounted to a Faustian bargain with our children. Faust always ups the ante, and every bet is double or nothing. Through much of the Third Turning, we have managed to postpone the reckoning. But history warns that we can’t defer it beyond the next blend in time.”

The table below shows the transition of each reserve currencies (every 100 years or so)  and the events that were carried out during each transition. Every transition was a period of great suffering marked by economic hardships, revolutions, and wars.


The transition of one World Reserve Currency is a cycle that stems from social behavior

Esteemed British economic historian Arnold Toynbee (1852-1883), in his work Study of History, also identified an “alternating rhythm” of a cycle of war and peace that has occurred in Europe at roughly one-century intervals since the Renaissance.  In addition to Europe, Toynbee also identified similar cycles in Chinese and Hellenistic history that averaged 95 years. He linked this to the gradual decay of the “living memory of a previous war,” whereby the descendents of war veterans, for whom their only knowledge of war was through stories, history books, and hearsay, would eventually come into power and resume the belligerent behavior pattern of their forefathers.

The most recent global crisis period was marked by WW1, the Great Depression, and WW2;  from the start (1914) to the finish (1945) we find a period that ranges from 100 (1914-2014) to 69 (1945-2014) years ago. This suggests that we may be entering into a new global crisis with the same cyclical thinking.

Global crises wreak havoc on all levels of existence, not to the mention the great cost to human lives. If we are to learn from history, however, it seems as though we might have to nevertheless brace ourselves for yet another one in the near future, as it marks the end of one saeculum and the start of a new economic paradigm aligned more positively with proper balances of trade, debt, and policies.

The US is trying to postpone the crisis by printing money, however this is creating currency wars with nearly all major central banks in the world. As history has shown us time and again, causing this delay through money printing will only aggravate the problem, not only not preventing the inevitable, but indeed making the transition more painful and costly.


  • TaoDaoMan

    Tick tock.
    He clock is running

  • Steve F1

    Looks like they just devalue the currency so much and then bust. Then to start over again.

    • Frodo baggins

      there si an end game though. When the rich have taken all real property because of default in a fraudulent monetary system….

      • Frodo baggins

        we will then be serfs….

  • Centinel2012

    There is an excellent book on this very subject titled “The Fourth Turning” by Strauss and Howe published in 1997 if I remember correctly. The book is about this cycle and its well documented and very accurate in its consultations. They laid out a number of scenarios of the current period we are now in and they give solid reasons why there will be a major war e.g. WW II starting within the next few years, most likely 2018 but it could be tomorrow. Any serious history student should read this book!

  • Economic Reason

    yes, generally you are right.

  • Frodo baggins

    Sir Josiah Stamp, President of the Bank of England and the second richest man in the British Empire,

    Empire, as said in an informal talk to 150 University of Texas history, economics and social science professors, in the 20’s.

    “Banking was conceived in iniquity and born in sin. . . . Bankers own the world.
    Take it away from them, but leave them the power to create money and control credit, and with a flick of the pen, they will create enough money to buy it back again. . . . Take this power away from bankers, and all great fortunes like mine will disappear, and they ought to disappear, because this would then be a better and a happier world to live in. . . But if you want to continue to be the slaves of bankers, and pay the costs of your own slavery, let them continue to create money, and control credit.”

    Almost there. It is called globalism, all the wealth and property will be owned by the rich, and we will all be basic income serfs.

  • Paul Thomas

    Yea the government robs all the citizens of everything they have, kill anyone that fights and we all live out of garbage cans because the government couldn’t say no more.

  • Jim

    Here’s your problem. You shared the reasons why reserve currency changes over time and those facts refute the idea that the dollar is ready to collapse. Every nation that had the reserve currency dominated world trade. The dollar will not collapse as long as the US has the worlds strongest military and governs the worlds trade routes. The dollar is good for at least another 50 years. Who is going to replace the US as the world power? We have 10 super carriers and the rest of the world has zero.

    • Sekhars

      US doesn’t have the strongest military anymore. West and particularly US lives in this illusion but China and Russia are much better equipped. US can torment middle east and South America but can’t do much against China or Russia. Dollar is doomed. Matter of few years at the most. BRICS are the real production engine of the world. Their real growth rate is between 5-7 % that means it will be double in 12 years. That means the financial center of the world will be in asia.Russia fire power doesn’t need super carriers -their nuclear submarine, ICBM and now space bombers are 30-40 years ahead of junk US technology. get real you need reality check. Just do a search of nuclear submarine launching ICBM as Russia can destroy any super or duper carrier from black sea alone. Doesn’t need 300k soldier around the world. Their new space bombers can travel around the world in less than two hrs. and can be launched from space. Which super carrier can do that ?

      • Jim

        Oh wow are you delusional. Do you spend your days reading tin hatter conspiracy newsletters? I’m not even going to waste my time with someone that makes retarded comments like this. Anyone that thinks China and Russia has weapons like the US is brain dead. China is in a constant state of hacking our computers trying to keep up with our technology. Russia is bankrupt and every day there is another part of their arsenal decommissioned. Russia can send a sub anywhere but they can’t send any troops moron. All wars today are conventional and nobody is launching a nuke against an aircraft carrier. Before the Russians finger came off the button their entire country would be ahnilated. We have space weapons that can fry Russia’s or China’s entire grid in a second. China can’t even get out of the South China Sea without our permission. Go back to watching Bigfoot videos. You are an idiot.

        • Sekhars

          read your comments one more time. You are one of those grandiose delusional who claims I am great just because I say so. America is bankrupt Mr genius not Russia- printing money and pile of debt is called insolvency . Make a trip to China and when you will return USA looks like 3rd world country. Time will prove who is correct Jimmie – We will come back here again and see who is an idiot or moron. Calling some one moron or an idiot doesn’t make you intelligent

          • Jim

            You should actually re-read your comments. You sound like you were in a cave for the last 30 years. Ask 100 people in every single city in every single country and you will not find one person who agrees with your comments. Ask every general in every army, navy, and Air Force in the world and they will not agree with you. Most will laugh at your comments. The US has the military strength to defeat both Russia and China at the same time in a non nuclear war. The leaders from those countries would even tell you that. As far as bankruptcy it’s easy to see you are not an economist and don’t understand the difference between money and currency. The US can keep printing as much currency as they like and if everyone keeps taking it it’s their problem. We have been very good at exporting our inflation to everyone else. Don’t cry about it. As far as real wealth the US has 8000 tons of gold and the next closest is Germany with 3000 tons. China is tenth in gold holdings and Russia is nowhere to be found. The US has 1/5 the worlds fresh water, 1/3 the worlds arable land, 1/3 the worlds navagable waterways, and access to both the Alantic and Pacific oceans with only friendly neighbors on our borders. Read Peter Ziehans “The Accidental Superpower”. The geopolitical advantages held by the US are greater than any nation has ever had in history. We also have demographics working for us as our aging generation is not as large as other nations percentage wise and our younger generation us bigger than most others. China will be overwhelmed with an aging population and Russia has no young people. They might be extinct in 20 years. Also China with have no clean water within 20 years and they already wear masks in their major cities because of pollution. Both China and Russia are in major decline and you are clueless. I know more about these subjects when I’m sleeping than you and your whole family will ever know. Go back to sleep.

          • Sekhars

            ignorance is a bliss. I have to say that you lives on fool’s paradise. self centered genius you represents america. Arrogance at the best. Ziehan promotes Zionist agenda and the fact is cabal of bankers are losing. Economical center of the world is already shifted to asia in 2013. China and India represents the future. US and Europe is declining societies. Consumption in asia is increasing and so their economical power. Russia and china do not live on debt and we are facing major economical collapse in US much worse than great depression when debt bubble collapse. I and you will come back here and carry on at that time. As far as natural resources are concern most people on earth live around area of cancer and area of capricorn. Most of the food produced in the world are from these area. Your and Ziehan understanding is BS as 70% of the world population lives in asia for the past 5-7 thousands years. Asia produces 60% GDP of the world. India and China now have 10 times of working age demography of the

          • John Sharma

            400 lb Americans are so dumbed down with gmo and corn starch its amazing. Heres an opinion from an Australian who has been to both the US and China.
            The navy is as obsolete as cavalry. That is why other countries dont waste billions building carriers any more. You have been shown 3x that all electronics can be jammed and jets can simulate strafing or container ships collide with USN vessels. Then there are the mach 20 missiles sinking it all. All those land bases are then cut off and stranded. You have a feminized and demoralized lgbtq army of people withoit the determination of defending their own country who took the job for the steady pay and free oestrogen to become a woman. To get out of fighting, thats all sny remaining men need do. The women meanwhile demand breastfeeding in battle be provided. Diversity quotas and not competence are promoted to leadership. All the european nato defence minister allies are women. Then there is the projects like the F35 that cost 100x what rivals focussed on real purpose spend and are near useless. They were meant to make contractors rich is all. You have a population of men who owe the country nothing, having been divorced, cut off from their children and extorted for support payments with a crack, opiate, pot and alcohol addiction that cant even fill the factory jobs that havent gone to china with sober workers who can pass a urine test.

            Meanwhile deals are being made all over the world between china and all the countries whose major trading partner it is. Oil producers like venzuela and saudis too. But u just go ahead and raise the debt ceiling again, start doing it daily. All will be well, no need to trim down from a 5000cc V8 to 50cc Scooter like in Asia will ever happen as long as u print petrodollars and evryone takes them instead of gold backed yuans or SDRs.

            Russia is the only european country with a positive birth rate, they created and exported feminism and the sexual revoution of cultural marxism as a trojan horse to the west, so now do not allow it there as they know it destroys civilization. I do not see this aging population in China, they look young and slim on the streets. Maybe for every one of them, theres 4 grandparents in a rocking chair. They’re not going to be given pensions, nursing homes or life support costing a million dollars each. They just die off leaving still.plenty of young people but no longer over populated for the computerized and roboticized world. The white race in the US is predicted to be extinct in 300 years, with so many central american ‘friendly neighbors’ who havent forgotten US involvement doing demographic replacement of the million a year abortions and 35 year old career women who had them in their 20s trying and failing to get pregnant from sperm banks in the US. Most of europes birrh rate is between 1.4 and 1.8 child per woman and muslim immigrants are doing most of that with their 5 children each. American common core math figures russia could be extinct in 20 yrs… meaning either all the babies born now cant live past 20 or they have nobody younger than 70.

          • Shlomo OyVey Shekelstein II

            since you wrote this comment, Russia has beaten America in Syria. Not bad for a country that will be “extinct in 20 years”. hahahaha

      • Sven Labelle

        Your joking arent you. The USA by far has the most advanced military and Navy in the world. You really should not talk when you sound so stupid.

        • Beam me up

          Its the old our biceps are bigger than your biceps even when we will not be able to afford a membership at the gym.

          • Sven Labelle

            Dude im a Canadian. Do i like Americans, yes I do. In fact, most Americans that travel to Canada and I meet, I enjoy. Do I like American politics not always. But let me say this, before the American and French revolution happened most people lived in a very depressed state. Americans only problem is it is to free. Hence with out severe punishment their will be certain people trying to exploit the system. But lets be real America paved the way for the common man to prosper.

          • Beam me up

            Yes it did, and then it became corrupted and greed driven and that’s is at some point when empires go into decline and collapse as they should along with their faux dollar that is only worth a tenth what it was originally worth.

    • Beam me up

      What pays for the military?

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